Quick List Of Companies That Support Planned Murderhood 2015


38 Big Name Donors to Planned (Murderhood) Parenthood 2015.

  1. Adobe
  2. American Cancer Society
  3. American Express
  4. AT&T
  5. Avon
  6. Bank of America
  7. Bath & Body Works
  8. Ben & Jerry’s
  9. Clorox
  10. Converse
  11. Deutsche Bank
  12. Dockers
  13. Energizer
  14. Expedia
  15. ExxonMobil
  16. Fannie Mae
  17. Groupon
  18. Intuit
  19. Johnson & Johnson
  20. La Senza
  21. Levi Strauss
  22. Liberty Mutual
  23. Macy’s
  24. March of Dimes
  25. Microsoft
  26. Morgan Stanley
  27. Nike
  28. Oracle
  29. PepsiCo
  30. Pfizer
  31. Progressive
  32. Starbucks
  33. Susan G. Komen
  34. Tostitos
  35. Unilever
  36. United Way
  37. Verizon
  38. Wells Fargo

From dailysignal.com


Catholic Christendom # 3

Catholic Christendom is founded on, what all other Catholic beliefs and practices are founded on, the whole Holy Bible, (the Old and the New Testament), and tradition.  Our faith is based is not only on what Jesus taught and did in the New Testament, but also on what came before Him and led up to His coming, the Old Testament.BookofHours

But we Catholics hold the 4 Gospels, (Matthew, Mark, Luke and John), in the highest regards when it come to understanding Christianity.  This is because only in the Gospels do we find the actual words that Jesus said.   They also contain everything else He taught and did in His 3 years of public ministry.

Then comes the Acts of the Apostles, epistles of the apostles and the Book of Revelation.  And finally comes the Old Testament.  In this part of the Bible we find these historical facts;

  • How God created man and woman and everything else.
  • The rebellion and fall of Eve and Adam.
  • The flood and Noah.
  • Abraham’s call to be the father of God’s people.
  • The miraculous conception of Isaac.
  • Jacob and his 12 sons that form the 12 tribes of Israel,
  • Joseph sold into Egypt.
  • Jacob and his other 11 sons moving to Egypt.
  • Moses’ liberation of Israel from slavery in Egypt through God’s plagues.
  • The 40 years in the desert.
  • Joshua miraculous entering into the promise land without any war.
  • The great priests prophets, and judges, Eli and Samuel.
  • King Saul, King David, King Solomon.
  • The exile into Babylonia.
  • The writing and teaching of the prophets.
  • The liberation of Israel by the Machabees brothers.

In the Old Testament we see God making a covenant with the Patriarch Abraham by circumcision of the first born male and the sacrifices of animals.  God promised to multiply his descendants to be as numerous as the stars of the sky.  He will be their God, and they will be His people.  God chooses only men to lead and only men are marked with the sign of the covenant, circumcision.abraham-640x480Abraham obeyed God and was willing to sacrifice his only son Isaac.

Then we see God leading his people through Moses.  He is chosen by God to be the intermediator between God and HIs people.  God reveals His divine laws through him and demands that the Israelites obey them.  If they obey God’s loving laws, they receive God’s protection and blessings.  When they disobey God’s law, they were cursed or killed.  These laws also came with  instructions on what punishment was to be applied to anyone who broke them, including death.  From this is where the idea of capital punishment comes from.

God also revealed specific, exact laws on all their religious practices too.  On what tribe priests would come from, how rites and sacrifices were to be made, keeping holy the Sabbath, what vestments were to be worn, how the priests and people had to purify themselves before praying and exactly what objects He wanted to be used in these Jewish rituals.

His laws were also very demanding on morals, like homosexual sex, stealing, adultery, lepers, abusing the poor and aliens.  When these laws were broken, He punished them by either fire, earthquakes or snakes.  Moses also was ordered by God to punish them by slaughtering them when they adored the golden calf.   It is clear in the Old Testament that God’s law are not to be broken, and if they are there are severe consequences.

728147-moses1Finally Joshua leads the Israelites into the Promised Land, a country filled with cities, buildings and vineyards that God gives them without any battles.  They are given other peoples buildings or orchards and vineyards with out every having to build them or plant them.  The Promised Land is a prefigurement of Christendom or what I will call a ‘Theodom’.

At the beginning living in the Promise Land, God continues to lead and punish His people through His chosen priests, prophets and judges.  Samuel is one of the greatest and holy ones.  God always would correct His people by raising up a prophet to guide them.

Then the people cry out to God to give them a king to rule them like all the other tribes around them.  He warns them of the taxes, wars, their giving of their young men as warriors and their women as cooks and all the other cost that it will cause them.  Nevertheless, He concedes to their wishes and this is where, you could say, when Theocracy began.

God is the true King, and the kings of Israel were only to be His ministers.  But the kings often forgot this and disobeyed God.  King Saul was hand picked by God, yet he turns evil and tries to kill David, besides breaking other laws set down by God.

King David is a king after God’s own heart.  Yet he too sins gravely and is punished for it.  But God forgives him and gives him a promise that his kingship would last forever.  That was the hope of Israel, that a King, Messiah and Prophet would come from the descendants of King David who would liberate them from all the oppressors and heal all their wounds.

His son, King Solomon, is greatly endowed with gifts from God.  With his fathers materials, silver and gold, he builds two things, the Great Temple for God and a palace for him as king in Jerusalem.  (We see here the two parts of Theocracy, God first, the king second).  He is a great king, judge and disciplinarian.  Yet he falls because of his lust for women, which cause him to allow his pagan concubines to practice and teach to the Israelites their evil false religions.  Because of this, the Theocracy is divided. Queen of Saba and Solomen_TISCHBEIN, Johann Friedrich AugustQueen of Saba amazed by the wisdom of King Solomon

Later on, because of the continual breaking of God’s law by worshiping and sacrificing to false gods, the Israelites are taken into captivity by the Babylonians.  Theocracy is completely destroyed because of the Israelites worshiping of false gods.  They reaped what they had sown.

The Machabees brothers begin to battle to free Israel from forced pagan worship and the covering over of their circumcision, the mark of the covenant.  They again enforced God’s laws and they were blessed.

Then in the fulness of time, God in His love and mercy, sent His only Begotten Son, Jesus to be the King Messiah He had promised them.  

He has raised up for us a mighty Savior,
Born of the house of His servant David.
Through His holy prophets He promised of old
That He would save us from our enemies,
From the hands of all who hate us.  Canticle of Zachariah.

We are so blessed to be traditional Catholics and to know the constant love and concern God has shown on His people, the Israelites before, and now on us, the Catholics, through Jesus Christ Our King.

Good News For Traditional Catholic Pro Lifers

I have a post that lists the companies that support Planned Murderhood so that we can boycott them, (not purchase any of the products or access their services).  The great news is that since the video on their selling baby parts, thousands of people are accessing this blog to get the list so as to be able to boycott these companies.  I hope they are feeling the financial impact of supporting this racist, baby killing organization started by Margaret Sanger a eugenist.  Margaret Sanger and KKK

Our government supports them with our tax money so they can go throughout the world killing off minorities.  I have not received a salary for many years.  My bishop wanted me to take it and them donate it back to the parish.  I said no, because I do not want to have to pay taxes that goes towards killing babies, forced sterilization of poor women, forcing condoms on people who do not even have enough food to eat or medical care and pushing the use of birthcontrol.abortion1

What would the animal lovers do if there was an organization that aborts baby dogs and cats and harvest their organs, tissues and muscles to sell.  There would be intense furor all over the world.  Yet, mothers, at abortion mills, can have their unborn babies killed, (by an organization that harvests their organs, tissues and muscles), just because they are an inconvenience to our selfish life styles.

IMG_4773I love animals.  They are a great gift to us from God and they need to be respected.  But they do not have eternal souls and for that reason they may be killed to be eaten and used to get other necessary things from them, like furs.  We do not abuse them, or kill them, just for the fun of it.

St. Christina Virgin and Martyr July 24

St. Christina of Bolsena
Saint Christina was the daughter of a rich and powerful magistrate named Urban. Her father, who was deep in the practices of paganism, had a number of golden idols. His young daughter broke them, then distributed the pieces among the poor. Infuriated by this act, Urban became the persecutor of his own daughter. He had her whipped with rods and thrown into a dungeon. Christina remained unshaken in her faith. Her tormentor brought her forth to have her body torn by iron hooks, then fastened to a rack beneath which a fire was kindled. But God watched over His servant and turned the flames back toward the onlookers, several of whom perished.

The torments to which this young girl was subjected would seem as difficult to devise as to imagine; but God was beside her at all times. After a heavy stone was attached to her neck, Saint Christina was thrown into the lake of Bolsena, but was rescued by an Angel and seen wearing a stole and walking on the water, accompanied by several Angels. Her father, hearing she was still alive, died suddenly amid atrocious sufferings. A new judge succeeded him, a cruel pagan experienced in persecuting the Christians. He tried to win her by reminding her of her nobility, suggesting she was in serious error. Her reply infuriated him: “Christ, whom you despise, will tear me out of your hands!” Then Saint Christina suffered the most inhuman torments. The second judge also was struck down by divine justice. A third one named Julian, succeeded him. “Magician!” he cried, “adore the gods, or I will put you to death!” She survived a raging furnace, after remaining in it for five days. Serpents and vipers thrown into her prison did not touch her, but killed the magician who had brought them there. She sent them away in the name of Christ, after restoring the unfortunate magician to life; he was converted and thanked the God of Christina and the Saint. Then her tongue was cut out.

The Saint prayed to be allowed to finish her course. When she was pierced with arrows, she gained the martyr’s crown at Tyro, a city which formerly stood on an island in the lake of Bolsena in Italy, but has since been swallowed up by the waters. Her relics are now at Palermo in Sicily. Her tomb was discovered in the 19th century at Bolsena, marked with an inscription dating from the 10th century.

Excerpted from Les Petits Bollandistes: Vies des Saints, by Msgr. Paul Guérin (Bloud et Barral: Paris, 1882), Vol. 9.


Catholic Christendom # 2

Catholic Christendom means a part of the world where the Catholic Church had great influence and power over religion, governments and politics.   It means that Jesus Christ is the King over the Church and government.  Jesus Christ deserves this power over all the Church, states, people, and things because first;

  • He created us and the Universe,
  • He purchased us, (redeemed us), from the devil, by dying on the cross.
  • He made all things new in Him.

crucifixJesus relegates His power and authority to His vicar on earth, the pope.  He is to be the prime minister who is head over a hierarchical Church consisting of cardinals, bishops, abbots, abbesses, religious and priests.  These delegates are meant to have temporal authority over emperors, kings, queens, princes, mayors etc.  Religious authorities rank first, then emperors, then empresses, kings, queens, princes, and on and on down the authority line.Crusaders_annoucement_2

Men have been given by God authority over their wives and families to love them, to keep them Catholic, to protect and to provide for them.  Mothers have authority over their children and the eldest sibling has authority over younger ones.  (You still find Catholic belief when Hispanics confess; ‘not respecting or obeying their elders’).

The only country on earth where there is still any vestige of this, is the Vatican State.  Other than this tiny State, there is no longer any other place.  There were places where the Catholic Church still had influence in the government.  But that has since changed.  The masons have systematically infiltrated every country where this Catholic influence was.  They accomplished this through what is call ‘filibusters’, (which is to put slowly masons in government positions and then to overthrow the government and pass laws and constitutions against the Catholic Church).

masonic-mass-3Mason receiving the Body Of Christ.

In their book, ‘The Freemasons in America: Inside the Secret Society’ by H Paul Jeffers, you read about this happening in Florida, Louisiana and Texas.  Where the masons are, there you will find the star or what is really a pentagram.  iuThe pentagram is the five pointed star represented the earth, air, fire, water and spirit that wiccans use.  Remember they believe in a new age spirituality and their magazine here in the USA was called that.  They put the pentagram star in the USA flag.  Texas is know as the lone star state.gw_apron_with_blue_background_1George Washington’s Masonic Apron with pentagon to the right. 

So what most traditional Catholics would think of when they say Christendom, is a hope that someday, by a miracle, there will be a return to Catholicism and governments like what was lived in Emperor Charlemagne’s time.  In the mean time, it is simple a dream and a personal commitment to Christ the King in our families.

They believe, in and try to live, this hierarchical authority paradigm in their traditional Catholic parishes to some extent and in their homes where the man is the head of his family.  You can still see some traces of this in the vow of obedience religious take to obey their superior.

This is greatly emphasized by the Society of St. Pius X.  They keep in mind that Jesus has been dethroned in the Church and in society.  They attempt to live this in their parishes and families.  Christ surrounded by angels_Antwerp, Kininklijk Museum voor Shone Kunsten_1480s

Michael Davies wrote a great small book on Christendom called; ‘The Reign of Christ the King’.

We are so blessed to be traditional Catholics and to know that Jesus is our King and that we love Him and want to obey Him.  He, God. is a powerful King who protects those who live under His rule and obey Him.  It would be heaven if we had holy people in authority in the Church and in government with whom we could obey and work for the good of society.  We could use all the money to build beautiful churches, we could have free Catholic schools, hospitals, orphanages, libraries, retreat houses, parks and homes.

Our society under secular and masonic leaders is not working.  We live in the illusion that we live under democratic government.  No, the two parties are just two big shows.  They both are run by the people behind the scenes.  We get all excited to try to elect Romney, because he is the lesser of two evils.  He is the one who made government medical care mandatory in Massachusetts.  Look what ‘Justice’ Roberts did in the Supreme Court.

When the French Revolution armies stormed the Bastille in July 14, 1789, they found 7 people, 4 forgers, 2 mad men and 1 pedophile.  Under this ‘great Democratic system’ we have millions of people in prisons here in the United States.

Long Live Christ The King.  Que Viva Cristo Rey.

St. Apollinaris July 23

StraboSt. Apollinaris

One of the first great martyrs of the church. He was made Bishop of Ravenna by St. Peter himself. The miracles he wrought there soon attracted official attention, for they and his preaching won many converts to the Faith, while at the same time bringing upon him the fury of the idolaters, who beat him cruelly and drove him from the city. He was found half dead on the seashore, and kept in concealment by the Christians, but was captured again and compelled to walk on burning coals and a second time expelled. But he remained in the vicinity, and continued his work of evangelization. We find him then journeying in the province of Aemilia. A third time he returned to Ravenna. Again he was captured, hacked with knives, had scalding water poured over his wounds, was beaten in the mouth with stones because he persisted in preaching, and then, loaded with chains, was flung into a horrible dungeon to starve to death; but after four days he was put on board ship and sent to Greece. There the same course of preachings, and miracles, and sufferings continued; and when his very presence caused the oracles to be silent, he was, after a cruel beating, sent back to Italy. All this continued for three years, and a fourth time he returned to Ravenna. By this time Vespasian was Emperor, and he, in answer to the complaints of the pagans, issued a decree of banishment against the Christians. Apollinaris was kept concealed for some time, but as he was passing out of the gates of the city, was set upon and savagely beaten, probably at Classis, a suburb, but he lived for seven days, foretelling meantime that the persecutions would increase, but that the Church would ultimately triumph. It is not certain what was his native place, though it was probably Antioch. Nor is it sure that he was one of the seventy-two disciples of Christ, as has been suggested. The precise date of his consecration cannot be ascertained, but he was Bishop of Ravenna for twenty-six years.  1914 Catholic Encyclopedia

Catholic Christendom Explained Part 1

Because most traditional Catholic believe in Christendom, (and are praying for its restoration), I think it is of utmost importance at this time in history to study the meaning and historical development of Christendom.  It is of great importance now as we have seen the Supreme Court of the USA and democratic voting tear down God’s laws and replacing them with man’s laws.

Christ KingI will attempt to do this by using the 1914 Catholic Encyclopedia article on Christendom, other sources and my own knowledge, to explain;

  • What the word Catholic Christendom means.
  • Where it comes from in the Bible.
  • Its Christian Catholic beginning in the Roman Empire under Constantine.
  • The destruction of the Roman Empire by the Barbarians.
  • The muslim conquest of the major part of Christendom.
  • Its golden time under Charlemagne in Northern Europe.
  • Its expansion.
  • Its growth to be beyond just one nation and one language.
  • Its comparison with Christendom under an emperor and the monarchy.
  • The great influence of Monasticism on it in the time of St. Bernard.
  • The crusades effect of protecting, unifying and dividing Christendom.
  • The development from God’s laws, to Canon laws, (Church laws), and Christendom’s demise when countries developed their own civil laws.
  • How corruption, worldliness and nepotism of popes, cardinals, bishops and clergy wrought havick on Christendom.
  • St. Joan of Arc’s locutions to lead men in war for Christendom.
  • The constant struggle between God’s rights, Church rights and governments rights.
  • Luther’s revolution that dealt the last blow to Christendom in Europe.
  • King Louis XIV of France ignores Jesus’ invitation to help restore Christendom in 1684 by not honoring His Kingly Sacred Heart.
  • The French Revolution against Christendom.
  • The Vendee’s counter revolution in France.
  • President Moreno’s attempt to rule Ecuador under Christendom, (1860).
  • The 1917 atheistic revolution of Russia that spread its error all over the world.
  • The Cristeros attempt to bring about Christendom in Mexico in 1927.
  • The spiritualization of the concept of Christendom and that moved away from the temporal Kingship of Jesus.
  • The pope’s encyclicals on Christendom.
  • Where are we know.
  • What can we do to restore Christendom in our temporal world.

Some of you, who read this, have never heard of the concrete temporal ruling of Jesus Christ King, through the Catholic Church over emperors and Governments.  These emperors are given power from God through His Church, to enforce God’s laws in government and society.

crusades_discovery_of_true_crossThe Finding And Veneration Of The True Cross Jerusalem.

But there are also those of you who possibly know much more than I do about Christendom.  But we all are concerned about what is happening today as we see the attempt to change or remove God’s laws in the Church, (Synod), in governments, (Supreme Court), in society and in our families.

We are so blessed to be traditional Catholics who desire our Loving Lord, Jesus Christ King rule over our souls, families, Church, society and governments.  We know that atheistic governments and court rulings are not making society better or our world safer.  God can.

St. Mary Magdalene July 22

St. Mary MagdalenMagdalene

Mary Magdalen was so called either from Magdala near Tiberias, on the west shore of Galilee, or possibly from a Talmudic expression meaning “curling women’s hair,” which the Talmud explains as of an adulteress.

In the New Testament she is mentioned among the women who accompanied Christ and ministered to Him (Luke 8:2-3), where it is also said that seven devils had been cast out of her (Mark 16:9). She is next named as standing at the foot of the cross (Mark 15:40; Matthew 27:56; John 19:25; Luke 23:49). She saw Christ laid in the tomb, and she was the first recorded witness of the Resurrection.

The Greek Fathers, as a whole, distinguish the three persons:

  • the “sinner” of Luke 7:36-50;
  • the sister of Martha and Lazarus, Luke 10:38-42 and John 11; and
  • Mary Magdalen.

On the other hand most of the Latins hold that these three were one and the same. Protestant critics, however, believe there were two, if not three, distinct persons. It is impossible to demonstrate the identity of the three; but those commentators undoubtedly go too far who assert, as does Westcott (on John 11:1), “that the identity of Mary with Mary Magdalene is a mere conjecture supported by no direct evidence, and opposed to the general tenour of the gospels.” It is the identification of Mary of Bethany with the “sinner” of Luke 7:37, which is most combatted by Protestants. It almost seems as if this reluctance to identify the “sinner” with the sister of Martha were due to a failure to grasp the full significance of the forgiveness of sin. The harmonizing tendencies of so many modern critics, too, are responsible for much of the existing confusion.Mary Magdalen_DOLCI, Carlo

The first fact, mentioned in the Gospel relating to the question under discussion is the anointing of Christ’s feet by a woman, a “sinner” in the city (Luke 7:37-50). This belongs to the Galilean ministry, it precedes the miracle of the feeding of the five thousand and the third Passover. Immediately afterwards St. Luke describes a missionary circuit in Galilee and tells us of the women who ministered to Christ, among them being “Mary who is called Magdalen, out of whom seven devils were gone forth” (Luke 8:2); but he does not tell us that she is to be identified with the “sinner” of the previous chapter. In 10:38-42, he tells us of Christ’s visit to Martha and Mary “in a certain town”; it is impossible to identify this town, but it is clear from 9:53, that Christ had definitively left Galilee, and it is quite possible that this “town” was Bethany. This seems confirmed by the preceding parable of the good Samaritan, which must almost certainly have been spoken on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem. But here again we note that there is no suggestion of an identification of the three persons (the “sinner”, Mary Magdalen, and Mary of Bethany), and if we had only St. Luke to guide us we should certainly have no grounds for so identifying them. St. John, however, clearly identifies Mary of Bethany with the woman who anointed Christ’s feet (12; cf. Matthew 26 and Mark 14). It is remarkable that already in 11:2, St. John has spoken of Mary as “she that anointed the Lord’s feet”, he aleipsasa; It is commonly said that he refers to the subsequent anointing which he himself describes in 12:3-8; but it may be questioned whether he would have used he aleipsasa if another woman, and she a “sinner” in the city, had done the same. It is conceivable that St. John, just because he is writing so long after the event and at a time when Mary was dead, wishes to point out to us that she was really the same as the “sinner.” In the same way St. Luke may have veiled her identity precisely because he did not wish to defame one who was yet living; he certainly does something similar in the case of St. Matthew whose identity with Levi the publican (5:7) he conceals.

If the foregoing argument holds good, Mary of Bethany and the “sinner” are one and the same. But an examination of St. John’s Gospel makes it almost impossible to deny the identity of Mary of Bethany with Mary Magdalen. From St. John we learn the name of the “woman” who anointed Christ’s feet previous to the last supper. We may remark here that it seems unnecessary to hold that because St. Matthew and St. Mark say “two days before the Passover”, while St. John says “six days” there were, therefore, two distinct anointings following one another. St. John does not necessarily mean that the supper and the anointing took place six days before, but only that Christ came to Bethany six days before the Passover. At that supper, then, Mary received the glorious encomium, “she hath wrought a good work upon Me . . . in pouring this ointment upon My body she hath done it for My burial . . . wheresoever this Gospel shall be preached . . . that also which she hath done shall be told for a memory of her.” Is it credible, in view of all this, that this Mary should have no place at the foot of the cross, nor at the tomb of Christ? Yet it is Mary Magdalen who, according to all the Evangelists, stood at the foot of the cross and assisted at the entombment and was the first recorded witness of the Resurrection. And while St. John calls her “Mary Magdalen” in 19:25, 20:1, and 20:18, he calls her simply “Mary” in 20:11 and 20:16.

St. Mary Magdalen popup 1In the view we have advocated the series of events forms a consistent whole; the “sinner” comes early in the ministry to seek for pardon; she is described immediately afterwards as Mary Magdalen “out of whom seven devils were gone forth”; shortly after, we find her “sitting at the Lord’s feet and hearing His words.” To the Catholic mind it all seems fitting and natural. At a later period Mary and Martha turn to “the Christ, the Son of the Living God”, and He restores to them their brother Lazarus; a short time afterwards they make Him a supper and Mary once more repeats the act she had performed when a penitent. At the Passion she stands near by; she sees Him laid in the tomb; and she is the first witness of His Resurrection–excepting always His Mother, to whom He must needs have appeared first, though the New Testament is silent on this point. In our view, then, there were two anointings of Christ’s feet–it should surely be no difficulty that St. Matthew and St. Mark speak of His head–the first (Luke 7) took place at a comparatively early date; the second, two days before the last Passover. But it was one and the same woman who performed this pious act on each occasion.

Subsequent history of St. Mary Magdalen. The Greek Church maintains that the saint retired to Ephesus with the Blessed Virgin and there died, that her relics were transferred to Constantinople in 886 and are there preserved. Gregory of Tours (De miraculis, I, xxx) supports the statement that she went to Ephesus. However, according to a French tradition (see SAINT LAZARUS OF BETHANY), Mary, Lazarus, and some companions came to Marseilles and converted the whole of Provence. Magdalen is said to have retired to a hill, La Sainte-Baume, near by, where she gave herself up to a life of penance for thirty years. When the time of her death arrived she was carried by angels to Aix and into the oratory of St. Maximinus, where she received the viaticum; her body was then laid in an oratory constructed by St. Maximinus at Villa Lata, afterwards called St. Maximin. History is silent about these relics till 745, when according to the chronicler Sigebert, they were removed to Vézelay through fear of the Saracens. No record is preserved of their return, but in 1279, when Charles II, King of Naples, erected a convent at La Sainte-Baume for the Dominicans, the shrine was found intact, with an inscription stating why they were hidden. In 1600 the relics were placed in a sarcophagus sent by Clement VIII, the head being placed in a separate vessel. In 1814 the church of La Sainte-Baume, wrecked during the Revolution, was restored, and in 1822 the grotto was consecrated afresh. The head of the saint now lies there, where it has lain so long, and where it has been the centre of so many pilgrimages.  1914 Catholic Encyclopedia